Saab 9-5

since 1997 of release

Repair and car operation



Saab 9-5
+ Saab 9-5 Cars
+ Governing bodies and operation receptions
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
+ the Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
- Systems of electric equipment of the engine
   + Systems of ignition, preheat and engine management
   - Diagnostics of systems of electronic control and diagnostic equipment
      General information
      Oscillograph application for supervision of signals in chains of control systems
   + charge and start Systems
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment





Oscillograph application for supervision of signals in chains of control systems

Digital multimeters perfectly are suitable for check of the electric chains which were in a static condition, and also for fixing of slow changes of traced parameters. At carrying out the dynamic checks which are carried out on the working engine, and also at identification of the reasons of periodic failures by absolutely irreplaceable tool there is an oscillograph.

Some oscillographs allow to keep oscillograms in the built-in module of memory with the subsequent conclusion of results to the press or their copying to the digital carrier already in stationary conditions.

The oscillograph allows to observe periodic signals and to measure characteristics of rectangular impulses, and also levels of slowly changing tension. The oscillograph can be used for:

  • Identifications of failures of unstable character;
  • Checks of results of the made corrections;
  • Activity monitoring lambda probe;
  • The analysis of the signals developed a lambda probe, which deviation of parameters from norm is the unconditional certificate of violation of serviceability of functioning of a control system as a whole, - on the other hand, correctness of a form of impulses given out a lambda probe can serve as a reliable guarantee of absence of violations in a control system.

Reliability and simplicity of operation of modern oscillographs do not demand from the operator of special special knowledge and experience. Interpretation of received information can be easily made by a way of elementary visual comparison of the oscillograms removed during check with the temporary dependences given below typical for various sensors and actuation mechanisms of automobile control systems.

Parameters of periodic signals

Each signal removed by means of an oscillograph can be described by means of the following key parameters (see an illustration of the Characteristic of any signal):

  • amplitude – a difference of the maximum and minimum tension (In) a signal within the period;
  • the period – duration of a cycle of a signal (ms);
  • frequency – quantity of cycles in a second (Hz);
  • width – duration of a rectangular impulse (ms, microsec);
  • porosity – the relation of the period of repetition to width (In foreign terminology return is applied porosity parameter called by the running cycle, expressed in %);
  • signal form – sequence of rectangular impulses, individual emissions, a sinusoid, sawtooth impulses, etc.

Characteristics of any signal

Usually characteristics of the faulty device strongly differ from reference that allows the operator easily and quickly visually to reveal the refused component.

Signals of a direct current - tension of a signal (see illustrations an ECT sensor Signal, the TPS Sensor, the Lambda probe and the MAF Sensor) is analyzed only.

ECT sensor signal

TPS sensor

Lambda probe

MAF sensor

Signals of an alternating current - are analyzed amplitude, frequency and a signal form.

Detonation sensor

The frequency modulated signals - are analyzed amplitude, frequency, a form of a signal and width of periodic impulses (see illustrations the Inductive CKP sensor, the Inductive CMP sensor, the Inductive VSS sensor, Sensors of turns and the provisions of shaft working at effect of the Hall, Optical sensors of turns and the provision of shaft and Digital MAF and MAP sensors).

Inductive CKP sensor

Inductive CMP sensor

Inductive VSS sensor

Sensors of turns and the provisions of shaft working at effect of the Hall

Optical sensors of turns and provision of shaft

Digital MAF and MAP sensors

The signals modulated on width of an impulse (ShIM) - are analyzed amplitude, frequency, a form of a signal and porosity of periodic impulses (see illustrations a fuel Injector, the Device of stabilization of turns X/x (IAC), Primary winding of the coil of ignition, Ø/m the valve of a purge of an adsorber of EVAP system, EVAP system Valves.

Fuel injector

Device of stabilization of turns X/x (IAC)

Primary winding of the coil of ignition

Ø/m valve of a purge of an adsorber of EVAP system

EVAP system valves

The form of a signal given out by an oscillograph depends on a set of various factors and can change considerably.

In view of told before starting replacement of a suspected component in case of discrepancy of a form of the removed diagnostic signal with the reference oscillogram, it is necessary to analyse carefully the received result (illustration cm the Digital signal and the Analog signal).

Digital signal

Analog signal

Tension

Zero level of a reference signal cannot be considered as absolute basic value, - "zero" of a real signal depending on concrete parameters of a checked chain can appear shifted rather reference (see a range 1 on an illustration the Digital signal) within a certain admissible range (see a range 1 on an illustration the Analog signal).

The full amplitude of a signal depends on supply voltage of a checked contour and also can vary rather reference value in certain limits (see a range 2 on an illustration the Digital signal and 2 on an illustration the Analog signal).

In chains of a direct current level of a signal is limited to supply voltage. As an example it is possible to give a chain of system of stabilization of turns of the idling (IAC) which alarm tension does not change in any way with change of turns of the engine.

In chains of an alternating current the amplitude of a signal already unequivocally depends on frequency of work of a source of a signal. So, the amplitude of the signal which is given out by the sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP) will increase with increase of turns of the engine.

In a look told if the amplitude of a signal removed by means of an oscillograph appears excessively low or high (up to trimming of top levels), it is enough to switch only a working range of the device, having passed to the corresponding scale of measurement.

At check of chains with Ý/m management (for example, a control system of idling turns) at shutdown of a food tension throws (see 4 on an illustration the Digital signal) which can be ignored quietly in the analysis of results of measurement can be observed.

It is not necessary to worry also at emergence of such deformations of the oscillogram, as a skashivaniye of the lower part of the forward front of rectangular impulses (see values 5 on an illustration the Digital signal) if, of course, the fact of a vypolazhivaniye of the front is not a sign of violation of serviceability of functioning of a checked component.

Frequency

Frequency of repetition of alarm impulses depends on working frequency of a source of signals.

The form of a removed signal can be edited and brought to a look convenient for the analysis by switching on an oscillograph of scale of temporary development of the image.

At supervision of signals in chains of an alternating current temporary development of an oscillograph depends on frequency of a source of a signal (on an illustration the Analog signal), defined by engine turns.

As it was already told above, for reduction of a signal to a legible look it is enough to switch scale of temporary development of an oscillograph.

In certain cases characteristic changes of a signal appear developed specularly rather reference dependences that speaks a reversivnost of polarity of connection of the corresponding element and, in the absence of a ban on change of polarity of connection, can be ignored in the analysis.

Typical signals of components of control systems of the engine

Modern oscillographs are usually equipped with two alarm wires in a compartment with a set various щупов, allowing to carry out device connection practically to any device.

The red wire is connected to a positive pole of an oscillograph and is usually connected to the ECM plug. The black wire should be connected to reliably earthed point (weight).

Injectors

Management of structure of an air and fuel mix in modern automobile electronic systems of injection of fuel is carried out by timely correction of duration of opening of electromagnetic valves of injectors.

Duration of stay of injectors abroach is defined by duration of developed ECM of the electric impulses submitted on an entrance Ý/m of valves. Duration of impulses usually does not fall outside the limits a range of 1-14 ms.

The typical oscillogram of the impulse operating operation of an injector, is presented on an illustration a fuel Injector. Often on the oscillogram it is possible to observe also a series of the short pulsations following directly an initiating negative rectangular impulse and supporting Ý/m the valve of an injector abroach, and also the sharp positive throw of tension accompanying the moment of closing of the valve.

Serviceability of functioning of ECM can be easily checked by means of an oscillograph by a way of visual supervision of changes of a form of an operating signal at a variation of working parameters of the engine. So, duration of impulses at an engine provorachivaniye on single turns should be slightly higher, than at operation of the unit on low turns. Increase of turns of the engine should be accompanied by respective increase in time of stay of injectors abroach. This dependence is especially well shown when opening butterfly valve by short pressing a gas pedal.

By means of thin щупа connect a red wire of an oscillograph to the injector ECM plug. Shchup of the second alarm wire (black) oscillograph reliably earth.

Analyse a form of the engine of a signal read out during a provorachivaniye.

Having started the engine, check a form of an operating signal on single turns.

Having sharply pressed a gas pedal, lift frequency of rotation of the engine to 3000 rpm, - duration of operating impulses at the moment of acceleration should increase considerably, with the subsequent stabilization at the level equal, or slightly smaller peculiar to idling turns.

Fast closing of a butterfly valve should lead to the flattening of the oscillogram confirming the fact of a perekryvaniye of injectors (for systems from otsechky supply of fuel).

At cold start the engine needs some enrichment of an air and fuel mix that is provided with automatic increase in duration of opening of injectors. In process of warming up duration of operating impulses on the oscillogram should be reduced continuously, gradually coming nearer to value typical for single turns.

In injection systems in which the injector of cold start is not applied, at cold start of the engine the additional operating impulses which are showing on the oscillogram in the form of pulsations of variable length are used.

In the table provided below typical dependence of duration of operating impulses of opening of injectors on a working condition of the engine is presented.

Inductive sensors

Start the engine and compare the oscillogram removed from an exit of the inductive sensor with reference, given on illustration.

Signal of the inductive sensor

The increase in turns of the engine should be accompanied by increase in amplitude of a pulse signal developed by the sensor.

Engine condition

Duration of an operating impulse, ms

Single turns

1 ÷ 6

2000 ÷ 3000 rpm

1 ÷ 6

Full gas

6 ÷ 35

Lambda probe (the oxygen sensor)

The oscillograms typical for most often of used on cars a lambda probes of zirconic type in which basic tension of 0.5 Century is not used are provided in this subsection. Recently the increasing popularity is gained by titanic sensors, the working which range of a signal makes 0-5 In, and high level of tension stands out at combustion of the impoverished mix, low, - enriched.

Connect an oscillograph between the plug a lambda probe on ECM and weight.

Make sure that the engine is heated-up to normal working temperature.

Compare the oscillogram displayed a measuring instrument with reference, given on the illustration Lambda probe.

If the removed signal is not wavy, and represents linear dependence, that, depending on tension level, it testifies to excessive repauperization (0 - 0.15 In), or reenrichment (0.6-1 In) an air and fuel mix.

If on single turns of the engine the normal wavy signal takes place, try to squeeze out sharply several times gas loops, - fluctuations of a signal should not fall outside the limits a range of 0-1 Century.

The increase in turns of the engine should be accompanied by increase of amplitude of a signal, reduction - decrease.

Ignition signal on an exit of the module of ignition

Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the module of ignition on ECM and weight.

Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.

On the screen of an oscillograph the sequence of rectangular impulses of a direct current should stand out. Compare a form of an accepted signal with reference, paying close attention to coincidence of such parameters, as amplitude, frequency and a form of impulses.

Operating signal of the module of ignition

At increase in turns of the engine frequency of a signal should increase in direct ratio.

Primary winding of the coil of ignition

Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the coil of ignition and weight.

Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.

Compare a form of an accepted signal with reference, given on an illustration Primary winding of the coil of ignition, - positive throws of tension should have constant amplitude.

Unevenness of throws can be caused by excessive resistance of a secondary winding, and also malfunction In/in coil wires.