Saab 9-5

since 1997 of release

Repair and car operation



Saab 9-5
- Saab 9-5 cars
   Saab 9-5 cars - the summary
   Identification numbers of the car
   Acquisition of spare parts
   Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
   Поддомкрачивание / posting and emergency transportation of the car
   Engine start from the auxiliary power supply
   Automobile himikaliya, oils and greasings
   Diagnostics of malfunctions
+ Governing bodies and operation receptions
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
+ the Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment





Diagnostics of malfunctions

The description of diagnostics of electronic control systems and codes of malfunctions are provided in the Head of System of electric equipment of the engine.

In this section the simplest scheme of clarification of the reasons of malfunctions and the refusals occurring in knots and systems of the car is offered. Refusals and their possible reasons are broken into groups on the basis of the relation to certain components or car systems, such as the engine, cooling system, etc., besides, in the text references to chapters and the sections concerning these problems are given.

Remember that the successful conclusion of search of causes of defect is defined by integrity of a complex of good knowledge and a patient, systematic approach to problem research. To move always follows from simple to difficult, to lead up each check to the logic end and to try not to pass the obvious facts - everyone can forget to fill fuel in a fuel tank or to leave for the night included lighting devices.

And, at last, always it is necessary to try to make an accurate picture of development of malfunction and to undertake the corresponding steps on recurrence prevention. If refusal of electric equipment was the result of violation of quality of contact, check at the same time a condition of all other contacts and electric sockets of system. If the same safety lock fused several times in a row, there is no sense in its further replacement - try to find out a cause of failure. Remember that failure of a minor component can be a sign of violation of functioning of more important knot or the whole system.

Engine

Indispensable conditions of start of any petrol engine are serviceability of giving of an air and fuel mix in cylinders and adequacy of an iskroobrazovaniye on spark plugs.

First of all it is necessary to make sure of serviceability of supply of fuel.

To define, whether the spark is formed, turn out spark plugs, insert them into tips and separately to put to weight. Thus it is not necessary to hold a wire or a tip hands, - use the isolated flat-nose pliers. Ask the assistant to start the engine. If the spark is absent, try to define a cause of failure.

The engine is not turned in attempts of its start

  1. Plugs of the battery are oxidized or weakened fastening of tips of wires on them.
  2. The battery is discharged or faulty. If tips of wires are not oxidized and reliably fixed on battery plugs, turn the ignition key in the situation "ON", then include headlights and/or windscreen cleaners, - if they do not function, - the battery is discharged.
  3. Transmission it is inexact it is established in the situation "P" (AT) or on neutral transfer (RKPP), or coupling is not squeezed completely out.
  4. Gap in a chain of system of start.
  5. The gear wheel of a starter is jammed in a gear wreath of a driving disk/flywheel.
  6. The traction relay of a starter is faulty.
  7. The starter is faulty.
  8. The ignition switch is faulty.

The engine is turned, but not started

  1. Start is incorrectly made. Act according to the Section Start of the engine and a start of motion.
  2. The engine immobilizator is faulty or is not disconnected.
  3. The emergency switch of the fuel pump is faulty.
  4. The fuel tank is empty, or poor-quality fuel is filled.
  5. The air filter is strongly polluted. Leakages of vacuum in elements of supply of air, malfunction in a control system of injection of fuel and ignition take place.
  6. The battery (the engine is turned too slowly) is discharged.
  7. Plugs of the battery are oxidized or weakened fastening of tips of wires on them.

Petrol engine

  1. The fuel pump is faulty, or its relay is damaged, - aurally check turning on of the pump at ignition inclusion.
  2. Components of system of ignition are damaged or excessively humidified.
  3. Spark plugs are worn-out or faulty, or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  4. Gap in a chain of system of start.
  5. Electroconducting of the coil of ignition is torn off or disconnected, or or weakened fastening of wires on coil plugs.
  6. The control unit safety lock is damaged by the engine, is faulty control system any of sensors of the engine.
  7. Low pressure of a compression.

Diesel engine

  1. The engine is not heated-up: check serviceability of functioning of system of preheat.
  2. Adjustment of the beginning of supply of fuel is brought down. Check, make adjustment.
  3. Nozzles are faulty. Check. Give consistently cap nuts - at an otdavaniye of a nut of the faulty cylinder turns of the engine will not fall.
  4. The fuel pump of a high pressure (TNVD) is faulty. Establish for check obviously serviceable TNVD.
  5. On electromagnetic (Ý/m) the locking valve there is no tension. Connect to the switch the voltmeter or a sampler on a light-emitting diode. Include ignition. The light-emitting diode should light up. Otherwise it is necessary to find break of electroconducting and to eliminate it.
  6. It is faulty Ý/m the locking valve. Check reliability of fastening Ý/m the switch, check contacts. Switch on and off ignition. In the switch click should be distributed.
  7. Damage to the line of supply of fuel or air to lines takes place:
    1. Pipelines or hoses are mechanically damaged or littered. Clear fuel pipelines and remove air from lines and the filter;
    2. The fuel filter is littered. Replace filtering element;
    3. In the winter it is necessary to check the filter and pipelines on ice or wax existence. Put the car in heated garage, add in gasoline system;
    4. Ventilation of a tank or the mesh filter of a toplivozabornik is littered. Clean.

The starter functions without an engine provorachivaniye

  1. The starter gear wheel is jammed.
  2. Teeths of a gear wheel of a starter or wreath of a driving disk are worn-out or damaged.

Start of the cold engine is complicated

(See also item. The cold engine is started badly, works unstably;)

  1. Low level of a charge of the battery.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system, or electric equipment is broken.

Start of the hot engine is complicated

(See also item. The heated-up engine is badly started, works unstably)

  1. Passableness of the air filter is broken.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system, or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Fuel does not arrive to fuel injectors.
  4. Insufficient compression in cylinders.

Gearing of a starter occurs is too noisy or with difficulty

  1. Teeths of a gear wheel of a starter or wreath of a driving disk are worn-out or damaged.
  2. Are lost, or bolts of fastening of a starter are insufficiently tightened.

The engine is started, but at once глохнет

  1. The engine immobilizator is faulty.
  2. Electroconducting is faulty, or weakened fastening of wires on plugs of the coil of ignition or the generator.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  4. Base installations of the control unit of the engine (ECM) are broken.
  5. Damage to system of release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases (OG) takes place.
  6. Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.

Stability of operation of the engine on single turns is broken

Petrol engine

  1. Depression losses take place. Make sure of reliability of a tightening of fixture, check the fact and quality of fastening on the unions on the inlet pipeline of all vacuum hoses. Hear to the working engine by means of a stethoscope or a piece of a fuel hose - existence of a hissing sound testifies to leak existence. Not less effective use of soap solution for check.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Passableness of the valve of system of operated ventilation of a case (PCV) is broken.
  4. Passableness of the air filter is broken.
  5. The fuel pump does not provide giving of enough of fuel to injectors.
  6. Leaks through laying of a head of cylinders take place, - measure a compression in engine cylinders.
  7. Working ledges of cams of a camshaft are worn-out.

Diesel engine

  1. Quality of connections of fuel hoses with TNVD and the fuel filter is broken. Replace fuel hoses, fix them collars, tighten screws of angular connections.
  2. TNVD fastening is mechanically damaged or weakened. Check fastening.
  3. Are mixed by junctions of the returnable pipeline and the pipeline of supply of fuel.
  4. Damage to the line of supply of fuel takes place:
    1. Pipelines or hoses are mechanically damaged or littered. Clear fuel pipelines;
    2. The fuel filter is littered. Replace filtering element;
    3. In the winter it is necessary to check the filter and pipelines on ice or wax existence. Put the car in heated garage, add in gasoline system;
    4. Ventilation of a tank or the mesh filter of a toplivozabornik is littered. Clean.
  5. Adjustment of the beginning of supply of fuel is brought down. Check, make adjustment.
  6. Nozzles are faulty. Check. Unscrew consistently cap nuts - at an otvorachivaniye of a nut of the faulty cylinder turns of the engine will not fall.
  7. TNVD is faulty. Establish for check obviously serviceable TNVD.

Admissions in operation of cylinders on single turns take place

  1. Spark plugs are worn-out or polluted or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  2. Malfunction of components of a power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  3. It is faulty In/in electroconducting.
  4. Poor-quality fuel is filled, or passableness of the fuel filter is broken.
  5. Depression losses in the inlet pipeline or through shlangovy connections take place.
  6. The low or non-uniformly distributed compression in cylinders.
  7. Work of a control system as the engine is broken.

Admissions in operation of cylinders of the engine at car movement on transfer take place

  1. The fuel filter is blocked or power supply system pollution takes place.
  2. Spark plugs are faulty or polluted or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  3. Malfunction of components of a power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  4. It is faulty In/in electroconducting.
  5. Components of system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  6. The low or non-uniformly distributed compression in cylinders.
  7. The ignition system is faulty.
  8. Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.

Engine spontaneously глохнет

  1. Adjustment of turns of idling is broken.
  2. Passableness of the fuel filter is broken, or moisture or dirt got to a power supply system.
  3. Refusal of components / information sensors of a power supply system takes place.
  4. Components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  5. Spark plugs are faulty or polluted or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  6. Depression losses on the case of a throttle or through vacuum hoses take place.

The engine does not develop full capacity

  1. Malfunction of components of a power supply system or electric equipment takes place.
  2. The air purifier is littered.
  3. Spark plugs are faulty or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed.
  4. The ignition coil is faulty.
  5. ATF level (fell see. Head of Control and routine maintenance of the car).
  6. Coupling/AT revolves.
  7. The fuel filter is blocked and/or dirt/moisture got to a power supply system.
  8. Poor-quality fuel is filled.
  9. The adjusting valve of a turbokompressor is damaged.
  10. The low or non-uniformly distributed compression in cylinders.

In addition for the diesel engine

  1. Non-uniform supply of TNVD fuel on cylinders. Adjust on the heated-up engine.
  2. The moment of the beginning of supply of TNVD fuel is incorrectly established. Adjust.
  3. The fuel filter or TNVD (nozzle) is littered. Wash out the preliminary filter, replace an element of the filter of thin cleaning, clean a spray or replace the pump (nozzle).
  4. Adjustment of the maximum frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft is broken.

There are cottons in system of an admission or shots in release system

  1. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  2. Defect in a secondary contour of system of ignition (destruction of insulators of spark plugs or damage In/in wires) takes place.
  3. The system of injection of fuel needs adjustment, or its components are excessively worn-out.
  4. Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through vacuum hoses take place.
  5. Gets jammed valves.
  6. The connection order In/in wires is broken.

At movement with acceleration or uphill there are detonation sounds

  1. Poor-quality fuel is filled.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of components of a power supply system or electric equipment is broken.
  3. Spark plugs not that type are established.
  4. The base ECM installations are broken.
  5. The detonation sensor is faulty.
  6. Depression losses take place.

The engine continues to work after a key povorachivaniye in the situation "OFF"

  1. Idling turns are excessively high.
  2. Malfunction of electric equipment or components of a control system of the engine takes place.
  3. The valve of a purge of an adsorber of system of catching паров fuels (EVAP) is faulty.
  4. High working temperature of the engine (OZh level fell, the thermostat is faulty, the radiator is blocked or the water pump is faulty).
  5. Tightness of injectors is broken.

The diesel engine smokes

  1. Black smoke:
    1. The air purifier is polluted. Replace filtering element;
    2. Inappropriate fuel is applied. Wash out a tank and replace fuel;
    3. The moment of the beginning of supply of TNVD fuel is incorrectly established.
  2. Dark blue smoke:
    1. Oil burning in the combustion chamber owing to wear of piston rings, high level of oil in an air purifier, wear of epiploons in covers of a turbokompressor, formation of thinnesses in laying between a block case and a turbokompressor. Repair the engine, modify oil level, replace epiploons, tighten bolts of fastening of a turbokompressor or replace laying;
    2. Fuel to one of nozzles does not move. Check on heating of final branch pipes of a collector;
    3. Bad dispersion of fuel by a nozzle because of malfunction of the valve or spray break. Grind in the valve or replace a nozzle.
  3. White or brown smoke:
    1. Low temperature in cooling system. Check the thermostat;
    2. Bad work of nozzles owing to wear or spray break. Replace a spray.

Engine electric equipment

Decrease in capacity or insufficient charge of the battery

  1. The belt of a drive of the generator is worn-out or damaged, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  2. Level of electrolit is insufficient or the battery is strongly discharged.
  3. Plugs of the battery are oxidized or weakened fastening of tips of wires on them.
  4. The generator does not provide a demanded current of a charging.
  5. Gap in a chain of electroconducting of a charging contour.
  6. Short circuit on "mass" of electroconducting creates continuous leakage of a current developed by the battery.
  7. Internal defect of the battery takes place.

The control lamp of a charging does not die away at increase in turns

  1. The tension of a driving belt is weakened.
  2. The regulator of tension and/or the generator is damaged. Disconnect a wire (D +) from a reverse side of the generator and include ignition. Further it is necessary to check a condition of a regulator of tension of the generator.
  3. Generator brushes are worn-out.
  4. The wire between the generator and a tension regulator is damaged.
  5. The combination of devices is faulty.

The control lamp of a charging does not light up at a key povorachivaniye in the situation "ON"

  1. The control lamp failed.
  2. The generator is faulty.
  3. Defect of the printed-circuit board, conducting in the block of a combination of devices or the boss of a lamp takes place.

The control lamp of a charging does not die away at a key povorachivaniye in the situation "OFF"

Diodes are punched

Starter

Contact plugs of electroconducting should be reliably fixed and are not oxidized!

  1. If the starter is not turned, at first it is necessary to make sure that on the No. plug 50 traction relays are present tension (at least 10 In). At negative results check a condition of electroconducting of a contour of a current of a starter.
  2. For check of serviceability of operation of a starter at full tension of the battery execute the following actions:
    1. Not including transfers, turn a key in the situation "ON";
    2. To Peremknita of the starter plug 30 and 50 wire section not less than 4 mm2.
  3. If the starter works faultlessly, the cause of defect should be looked for in wires to a starter. If the starter does not earn, it should be checked in the removed condition.

The starter does not rotate at a key povorachivaniye in the situation "START"

  1. The battery is discharged.
  2. To Peremknita of the starter plug 30 and 50: if it rotates, check on break brought to the ignition lock a wire 50, also estimate a condition of the switch of a starter.
  3. The weight wire is torn off, or quality of its terminal connection is broken.
  4. Weakening of a current owing to violation of quality or oxidation of contact connections.
  5. There is no tension on the plug 50 traction relays as a result of electroconducting break, or damage of the switch of a starter.

The starter rotates slowly and does not turn a cranked shaft

  1. The battery is discharged.
  2. Summer oil is filled in.
  3. Current passing owing to poor-quality contacts is complicated.
  4. Coal brushes do not adjoin to a collector, jam in directing, are worn-out, broken, greasy or polluted.
  5. Insufficient distance between brushes and a collector.
  6. The collector in grooves or scorched and was made oily.
  7. There is no tension on the plug 50 (at least 8 In).
  8. The bearing is broken.
  9. The traction relay is faulty.

The starter "seizes", but provides an engine provorachivaniye only with breakthroughs

  1. The gear wheel drive is faulty.
  2. The gear wheel is polluted.
  3. The gear wreath of a driving disk is damaged.

The gear wheel of a starter does not leave gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel / a driving disk

  1. Components of a drive of a gear wheel are polluted or damaged.
  2. The traction relay is faulty.
  3. The returnable spring weakened or became torn.

The starter continues to work after an ignition key otpuskaniye

  1. The traction relay is jammed, - immediately switch off ignition and replace the traction relay.
  2. The ignition lock is not disconnected, - disconnect the battery, replace the lock.

Power supply system

Fuel consumption is excessive

  1. The air filter is polluted or blocked.
  2. Pressure of a rating of tires does not suffice or tires not are established that size.
  3. The engine has mechanical damages. Check a compression, in case of need make the corresponding regenerative repair.
  4. Turns of idling and the maximum turns of a cranked shaft are excessively high.
  5. Malfunction of components of a power supply system, electric equipment or electronic control takes place.
  6. Leaks in system of an admission of air.
  7. Damages to system of release and decrease in toxicity of OG take place.

In addition for the diesel engine

  1. Contamination of the returnable pipeline. Blow air the returnable pipeline from TNVD to a fuel tank.
  2. The engine has mechanical damages. Check a compression, if necessary repair the engine.

Leakages of fuel and/or a gasoline smell take place

  1. Leaks in lines of supply of fuel or ventilating lines take place.
  2. The fuel tank is overflowed. Filling make only before automatic shutdown of the gun.
  3. Take place leak/evaporation from lines of power supply systems and decrease in toxicity of OG.

The engine is not started

  1. At inclusion of a starter the fuel pump (it is not audible noise of its work) does not work. Slightly knock on the pump case to release jammed detail. Check serviceability of giving of tension on the pump (check serviceability of a safety lock and reliability of fastening of contact plugs of the corresponding electroconducting).
  2. The relay of the fuel pump is faulty.
  3. Zalipli valves of injectors. Check injectors, if necessary replace. Check tension giving on injectors.
  4. There is no signal from the ignition or ECT sensor sensor. Check a condition of its electroconducting, poll memory of OBD II system.
  5. Fuel pipelines are damaged, littered or are not tight, there are defects of hoses.
  6. The fuel filter is littered.
  7. To the inlet highway as a result of tightness violation подсасывается superfluous air.
  8. Vacuum pipelines are damaged, or violation of tightness of their landing takes place.
  9. The regulator of pressure of fuel is damaged, - check residual pressure.
  10. The sensor of provision of a butterfly valve (TPS) is damaged.
  11. There is no ECM food.
  12. Lines of ventilation of a fuel tank are hammered, the filter in a tank is littered.
  13. Ice or wax existence in the filter or pipelines of the diesel engine.
  14. The preheat system does not work.
  15. The valve of an otsechka of fuel of the diesel engine is damaged.
  16. The moment of the beginning of supply of fuel is brought down.
  17. Nozzles of the diesel engine are damaged. Give in turn cap nuts and check, whether the corresponding cylinder works.
  18. TNVD is faulty.

The cold engine is started badly, works unstably

  1. The maintenance of CO does not correspond to standard requirements, - make the corresponding measurement, check idling turns.
  2. The ECT sensor is faulty.
  3. Pressure of fuel does not correspond to demanded value.
  4. To the inlet highway as a result of tightness violation подсасывается superfluous air.

The heated-up engine is badly started, works unstably

  1. The system of an admission of air is not tight. Check inlet system. For this purpose leave the engine to idle and moisten places of consolidations and connection on an inlet path with gasoline. If the number of turns increases by short time, eliminate not tight places.
  2. The return valve of the fuel pump is damaged.
  3. Leaks in fuel system.
  4. Fuel elevated pressure in a power supply system.
  5. Malfunction of EVAP system.
  6. It is hammered or crumpled returnable топливопровод to a tank.
  7. Zalipli valves of injectors. Check injectors, if necessary replace. Check tension giving on injectors.
  8. There is no signal from the sensor of ignition of the Hall or the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid. Check a condition of the corresponding electroconducting, poll OBD II system.
  9. To the inlet highway as a result of tightness violation подсасывается superfluous air.
  10. The pressure regulator is damaged, - check residual pressure.
  11. The TPS sensor is damaged.
  12. There is no ECM food.

The engine works with interruptions

  1. Connections of electroconducting of the fuel pump are broken from time to time. Check sockets of electroconducting and safety locks of the fuel pump, the MAF sensor and the relay of the fuel pump.
  2. Poor quality of fuel, formation of steam jams.
  3. Weak service of fuel.
  4. The fuel filter is faulty.
  5. The fuel pump is faulty.
  6. Injectors are faulty.
  7. It is faulty a lambda probe, violations in a chain of quality management of a mix or there is no heating a lambda probe.
  8. TPS is faulty.
  9. The final collector or reception pipe of system of production of the fulfilled gases (there are leakages of OG) is damaged.
  10. Malfunction of EVAP system.
  11. Zalipli valves of injectors. Check injectors, if necessary replace. Check tension giving on injectors.
  12. There is no signal from the sensor of ignition of the Hall or the ECT sensor. Check electroconducting, poll memory of ECM on existence of codes of malfunctions.
  13. To the inlet highway as a result of tightness violation подсасывается superfluous air.
  14. Vacuum pipelines are damaged or are not tight
  15. The pressure regulator is damaged, - check residual pressure.
  16. There is no ECM food.

The engine works with interruptions at transitional modes and in an idling mode

  1. The system of an admission of air is not tight. Check connections of inlet system. Start the engine and moisten with gasoline of connection of components of a soaking-up path. If engine turns quickly increase, eliminate a tightness cause of infringement.
  2. Incorrect adjustment of idling. Check TPS and a lambda adjustment.

The hot engine is not started

  1. Incorrect adjustment of the contents WITH. Check the contents WITH and idling.
  2. Too high pressure in fuel system, - check pressure of fuel, if necessary replace a pressure regulator.
  3. The returnable pipeline between a regulator of pressure and a fuel tank is littered or will bend. Clean or replace the pipeline.
  4. The sensor of temperature of the engine is faulty.
  5. Tightness of a power supply system is broken.
  6. Tightness of an inlet air path is broken.

The engine works after switching off

  1. Injectors are not tight. Check injectors.
  2. The valve of an otsechka of fuel does not work at the diesel engine.

Greasing system

The control lamp does not burn at a key povorachivaniye in the situation "ON"

  1. The sensor of pressure of oil is faulty. Include ignition, disconnect from the sensor a wire and close it on "weight", - if the lamp lights up, replace the sensor.
  2. On the sensor tension, contacts коррозированы does not move, - check a condition of the corresponding electroconducting.
  3. The control lamp is faulty.
  4. The combination of devices is faulty.

The control lamp does not die away after engine start

Oil перегрето. If the control lamp dies away after supply of gas, to do it is required nothing.

The control lamp does not die away after supply of gas, or lights up during movement

  1. Oil level fell.
  2. Short circuit of electroconducting of the sensor of level of oil takes place.
  3. The sensor is faulty.

Too low pressure of oil on all turns

  1. Oil level fell.
  2. The mesh filter of a maslozabornik in the case pallet is littered.
  3. The oil pump is worn-out.
  4. Bearings of a cranked shaft are damaged.

Too low pressure of oil on small turns

The Reduktsionny valve залип abroach because of pollution.

Too high pressure of oil at frequency of rotation of the engine over 2000 rpm

The Reduktsionny valve does not open because of pollution.

Cooling system

Overheat

  1. Level of cooling liquid fell.
  2. The belt of a drive of the water pump is worn-out or damaged or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  3. Internal channels of a radiator are blocked or is polluted the reshyotka of a radiator (is blocked).
  4. The thermostat is faulty.
  5. Blades of a krylchatka of the fan are broken or burst.
  6. The sensor switch (Д/В) of the fan is faulty.
  7. The index of temperature of cooling liquid (OZh) is faulty.
  8. The water pump is faulty.
  9. Does not hold pressure a radiator cover, - make cover check under pressure.

Overcooling

  1. The thermostat is faulty.
  2. Indications of a measuring instrument of temperature of OZh are inexact.

External leakages of cooling liquid

  1. Hoses are damaged or destroyed as a result of material aging or weakened fastening them on unions.
  2. Epiploons of the water pump are spoiled, - cooling liquid exudes through a control opening in the pump case.
  3. Leaks from internal channels of a radiator or the tank take place.
  4. Leaks through a drain stopper of the engine or vyzhimny jams of water galleries take place.

Internal leakages of cooling liquid

Internal leakages of OZh usually come to light by check of a condition of impellent oil. Examine an edge measuring щупа and internal surfaces of a cover (covers) of cylinders on existence of traces of water and oil foaming.

  1. Leaks through laying of a head of cylinders take place, – check system of cooling by pressure.
  2. There are cracks on walls of cylinders or in head molding.

There are losses of cooling liquid

  1. In system the excessive quantity of OZh is filled.
  2. OZh boils away as a result of an engine overheat.
  3. Internal or external leakages of OZh take place.
  4. The radiator cover is faulty, - check a cover pressure.

Circulation of cooling liquid is broken

  1. The water pump does not function properly. It is simplest to make sure of pump functioning, having pressed the top hose of a radiator at the engine working at single turns. If at an otpuskaniye of a hose the liquid push in it is felt, the pump functions regularly.
  2. Passableness of system of cooling is broken - wash out it and fill with fresh liquid. If necessary remove a radiator and carry out its obratnopotochny washing.
  3. The driving belt of the water pump is worn-out or damaged or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  4. The thermostat is jammed.

Heater

The fan of a heater does not work

  1. The safety lock э / the fan motor is faulty.
  2. The fan switch is faulty, - check, whether tension to preresistors moves, remove and check the fan switch.
  3. The fan motor is faulty э/. Check, whether tension moves on it at the included ignition and the closed switch of the fan, - if tension moves, replace the motor.

The fan of a heater does not work at one of steps

The preresistor is faulty.

The heater is not switched off by a regulator

  1. The switch is faulty.
  2. Cables of an adjusting mixing zaslonka are damaged or badly mobile.

Too low capacity of heating

  1. Level of cooling liquid is insufficient.
  2. Handles of management of a heater have a heavy course, is faulty, - check management assembly, if necessary replace the corresponding driving cable.

Noise in the field of the heater fan

  1. Dirt, leaves got, - remove the fan and clean it, clear the air channel.
  2. Balancing of a krylchatka is broken, the bearing is damaged.

Coupling

Coupling is not switched off (a control lever of RKPP is not transferred freely to the provision of transfer of a backing and back at the pedal of coupling squeezed out to a floor)

Will bend or is damaged a coupling disk (see. Head Coupling and power shafts).

Coupling revolves (turns of the engine raise without increase in speed of movement of the car)

  1. The disk of coupling is greasy or its frictional slips are wiped. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components (see. Head Coupling and power shafts).
  2. The coupling disk was not earned extra properly. For final extra earnings of a new disk it can be demanded from 30 to 40 normal starts of the car.
  3. It is worn-out press a coupling disk/basket (see. Head Coupling and power shafts).

At inclusion of coupling there is a strong vibration

  1. The coupling disk is greasy. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components. Eliminate all revealed leaks.
  2. Shlitsa of a nave of a conducted disk (coupling disk) are worn-out. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components.
  3. The disk/basket of coupling or flywheel will bend press. Remove coupling and check a condition of its components and a flywheel.

Breakthroughs at coupling work

  1. Damage of support of the engine and transmission. Check, if necessary replace.
  2. Weakening of fastening of a transmission to a suspension bracket. Tighten fastening bolts.
  3. Non-uniform prileganiye of a press disk. Replace a coupling basket.
  4. The cranked shaft is not centered with a transmission. Check centering.

Squeal or roar arise at complete inclusion of coupling (the pedal is released)

The coupling bearing is jammed vyzhimny. Remove coupling and check a bearing condition. Remove all agnails and teases, and grease the bearing before installation into place.

Squeal or roar arise at complete switching off of coupling (the pedal is squeezed out)

  1. The bearing (is worn-out or damaged vyzhimny see. Head Coupling and power shafts).
  2. Springs (or diaphragm petals) a press disk in a coupling basket (are worn-out or damaged see. Head Coupling and power shafts).

The pedal of coupling remains squeezed out to a floor after its otpuskaniye

The piston of the main thing or the working cylinder of coupling is jammed. Damages of hydrosystem of coupling or vyzhimny bearing. Check a condition, if necessary remove coupling components.

Manual box of gear shifting (RKPP)

At established on neutral transfer of RKPP to operating time of the engine extraneous noise take place

  1. The bearing of primary shaft is worn-out.
  2. The bearing of a leading gear wheel of a conducted shaft is damaged.
  3. Bearings of an intermediate shaft are worn-out.
  4. Washers of adjustment axial люфта an intermediate shaft are worn-out or damaged.

Extraneous noise take place in any situation RKPP

  1. Any of above-mentioned reasons and/or:
  2. In RKPP the insufficient amount of transmission oil (its level fell) is filled in.

Extraneous noise arise on any concrete transfer

  1. Teeth of a gear wheel of this transfer is worn-out, damaged or chopped off.
  2. The synchronizer of this transfer is worn-out or damaged.

There are "soskakivany" RKPP from the highest transfer

Between a boat of a box and the engine dirt or a box got was displaced in relation to the engine.

At gear shifting there are complications

  1. It is not squeezed completely out coupling (is switched off).
  2. Draft of switching is damaged, weakened its fastening or adjustment is broken. Make careful check of a condition of components, in case of need replace the defective.

Leakages of transmission oil take place

  1. In RKPP the excessive amount of transmission oil is filled. In case of need merge surplus.
  2. Differential epiploons need replacement.

Automatic transmission (AT)

In view of complexity of a design of AT diagnostics of its malfunctions and repair of components is desirable for carrying out in a car-care center workshop.

The common problems connected with functioning of the mechanism of switching

  1. It is possible to carry the following to number of the refusals connected with violation of adjustment of draft of switching:
    1. Start of the engine is possible at provisions of transmission, distinct from "R" and “N”;
    2. Indications of the indicator of provision of transmission differ from really chosen transfer;
    3. The car moves at the transmission established in the situation "R" or "N";
    4. Transfers are switched hardly or any way.
  2. Make adjustment of draft of gear shifting.

Transmission revolves, is switched hardly, publishes extraneous noise or does not provide car movement at installation on one of transfers

  1. There is a set of the possible reasons of the problems listed in heading, however under competence of the amateur mechanic one of them - the wrong level of transmission liquid (ATF) gets only.
  2. Before driving away the car in a workshop of car-care center check level and ATF condition. Modify level of ATF or replace it.

Leakages of transmission liquid (ATF) take place

  1. ATF has dark red color. Traces of its leaks should not be confused to traces of impellent oil which can be demolished on a case of transmission by a running stream of air.
  2. For identification and localization of a source of leak first of all remove from a transmission boat all traces of dirt and greasing. Use a suitable obezzhirivatel and/or make steam cleaning. Then make on the car a short trip on small speed (that traces of leak did not communicate a running stream far from its source). Stop, поддомкратьте the car and by visual survey establish a leak source. More often as those act:
    1. The pallet of a case of transmission, - tighten fixing bolts and/or replace pallet laying;
    2. Gulf ATF tube, - replace rubber consolidation in a place of an entrance of a tube in a transmission case;
    3. The ATF lines, - tighten shtutserny connections or replace lines;
  3. The ventilating tube, - transmission is overflowed and/or water got to it.

ATF has brown color or smells as ashes

ATF level is insufficient.

The kickdown mode does not join by full pressing a pedal (the low gear does not join)

  1. ATF level fell.
  2. The control system of the engine is faulty.
  3. The sensor switch or its electroconducting is faulty.
  4. Adjustment of a driving cable of the selector is broken.

The engine is not started at any position of the selector or started in provisions, distinct from "R" and «R»

  1. Adjustment of the sensor switch of permission of start is broken.
  2. Serviceability of functioning of a control system is broken by the engine.
  3. Adjustment of a cable of the selector is broken.

Transmission revolves, breakthroughs or noise at gear shifting. The car does not move at inclusion of modes "D" or "R"

  1. ATF level fell.
  2. The sensor or its electroconducting is faulty.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of a control system is broken by the engine.

Bridges

Extraneous noise

  1. Usual road noise, - adjustment do not give in.
  2. Noise of tires, - check a condition of protectors and pressure of a rating of tires.
  3. Bearings of wheels are worn-out or damaged, or weakened effort of their tightening.

Vibrations

Check a condition of bearings of wheels, serially poddomkrachivy the corresponding corner of the car and rotating a wheel manually. Listen thus to sounds starting with the bearing. Remove bearings and check their condition.

Leakages of oil

Epiploons of differentials are damaged.

Brake system

Before coming to the final conclusion about existence of problems with brake system make sure that tires are in a satisfactory condition and are pumped up with demanded pressure, adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels and the car is not broken is not loaded non-uniformly.

The increased course of a pedal of a brake

The working contour of a brake path is damaged, - check system on leaks.

The pedal of a brake springs and fails

  1. Air got to the brake highway, - pump over system.
  2. Liquid level fell in the GTTs tank, - make the corresponding adjustment, pump over system.
  3. Formation of vials of steam. It is shown, mainly, at big load of brakes. Replace brake liquid, remove air from system.

Decrease in effect of braking, pedal fails

  1. Tightness of a hydraulic path is broken.
  2. Cuffs in the main thing or working brake cylinders are damaged.
  3. Rubber laying is damaged. Repair a support.

Bad braking, despite big effort of pressing of a pedal

  1. Brake slips are greasy.
  2. The improper or hardened blocks are established.
  3. The amplifier of brakes is faulty.
  4. Brake shoes are worn-out.

When braking the car withdraws aside

  1. Pressure of a rating of tires does not correspond to the demanded.
  2. Protectors are non-uniformly worn-out.
  3. Brake slips are greasy.
  4. On one axis different brake shoes are established.
  5. Brake shoes are excessively worn-out.
  6. Mines of supports are polluted.
  7. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  8. Blocks are non-uniformly worn-out.

Spontaneous braking

  1. The compensatory opening in the main brake cylinder (GTTs) is littered.
  2. The gap between a driving rod and the GTTs piston is insufficient.

Brakes heat up during movement

  1. The compensatory opening in the main brake cylinder is littered.
  2. The gap between a driving rod and the GTTs piston is insufficient.

Brakes shiver

  1. Blocks of inadequate type are established.
  2. Brake disk in places корродирован.
  3. Palpation of a brake disk is excessively great.

Brake shoes do not depart from a brake disk, the wheel is hardly turned manually

Corrosion in cylinders of brake supports. Repair or replace a support.

Non-uniform wear of blocks

  1. Blocks of inappropriate type are established. Replace blocks.
  2. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  3. The piston stroke is complicated.
  4. Tightness of a path of brake system is broken.

Wedge-shaped wear of brake shoes

  1. The brake disk rotates not parallel to a support.
  2. Supports are damaged by corrosion, - make replacement.
  3. Serviceability of functioning of the piston is broken.

Scratch of brakes

  1. Often reason in atmospheric influence (humidity of air). If the scratch appears after long parking at the increased humidity and then vanishes, anything it is not necessary to do.
  2. Blocks of inappropriate type are established.
  3. The brake disk rotates not parallel to a support.
  4. The support mine is polluted.
  5. Pognuta of a spring of fastening of blocks.
  6. Press springs are stretched.

Pulsation of a pedal of a brake

  1. Sign of normal operation of ABS.
  2. Palpation of a brake disk is excessively great.
  3. The brake disk rotates not parallel to a support.

The control lamp of ABS lights up during movement

  1. The supply voltage (below 10 In) does not suffice. Check tension. Check, whether the control lamp of the generator after engine start dies away. If everything is all right, check a belt of a drive of the generator.
  2. Malfunction of ABS takes place, - check a condition and reliability of fixing of terminal connection of weight of the returnable pump (in the hydromodulator).

Suspension bracket and steering

The car withdraws at movement in one of the parties

  1. Tires are pumped non-uniformly up.
  2. Defect of tires takes place.
  3. Suspension bracket or steering components are excessively worn-out.
  4. Carrying out adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is required.
  5. Forward brake mechanisms are taken.

Breakthroughs, dyorganye or vibrations take place

  1. Balancing of wheels is broken or there was an ovality of disks.
  2. Bearings of wheels are worn-out, weakened effort of their tightening or adjustment is broken.
  3. Racks shock-absorbers or other components of a suspension bracket are worn-out or damaged.

Excessive rocking car "/zaryvaniye" his nose on turns takes place or when braking

  1. Suspension bracket racks are faulty.
  2. Suspension bracket components are damaged.

Too hardly the steering wheel rotates

  1. Excessively liquid level fell in the tank of the hydraulic booster of a steering (GUR).
  2. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  3. Hinges of a steering drive are insufficiently greased.
  4. Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  5. GUR does not develop the demanded capacity.

Takes place excessive люфт a steering

  1. Weakened effort of a tightening of bearings of forward wheels.
  2. Suspension bracket or steering components are excessively worn-out.

GUR does not develop due effort

  1. It is worn-out, or the driving belt of the pump GUR is damaged, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  2. Excessively GUR liquid level fell.
  3. Passableness of hoses or lines of hydraulic system is broken.
  4. Air got to GUR, - pump over system.

Excessive wear of protectors (not in one any area) takes place

  1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Balancing of wheels is broken.
  3. Disks of wheels are damaged.
  4. Suspension bracket or steering components are excessively worn-out.

Excessive wear of protectors on external edge takes place

  1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Turns are too sharply made.
  3. Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels (excessive convergence) is broken.
  4. Will bend or is braided the suspension bracket lever.

Excessive wear of protectors on internal edge takes place

  1. Tires are pumped incorrectly up.
  2. Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels (divergence) is broken.
  3. Components of a steering are damaged or weakened their fastening.

Local wear of a protector takes place

  1. Balancing of wheels is broken.
  2. Are damaged or погнуты disks.
  3. Defect of tires takes place.

Defects of brushes of a screen wiper

Proskalzyvaniye

  1. Rubber working elements are polluted.
  2. Edges of brushes are shabby, rubber working elements are worn-out or broken off.

In the field of cleaning the water remains gather at once to drops

The windscreen is polluted by varnish polish or oil.

The brush clears unilaterally - in one party well, in another is not present

  1. The rubber working element has unilateral wear.
  2. The lever of a screen wiper is braided, the brush not precisely adjoins to glass.

Crude surfaces

  1. Reliability of fixing of a working element in a brush frame is broken.
  2. The brush adjoins to glass non-uniformly.
  3. Force of pressing by the lever is too small, - slightly grease hinges of levers of a screen wiper and a spring or establish the new lever.

Defects of tires

Strong wear of the tire on both parties of a working surface

Too low pressure in tires.

Strong wear of the tire in the middle of a working surface on all circle of a protector

Too high pressure in tires.

Non-uniform wear of a protector

Static and dynamic disbalance of a wheel, probably, owing to excessive lateral palpation of a disk, too big люфт in bearing hinges.

Non-uniform wear in the middle of a protector

Static disbalance of a wheel, probably, owing to excessive vertical palpation.

Strong wear of separate sites in the middle of a working surface of a protector

Result of sharp braking.

Sawtooth wear of a protector, it is frequent together with a rupture of a fabric basis of the tire invisible outside

Car overload. Check a condition of internal walls of tires.

Rubber uvulas at lateral edges of a protector (scaly wear)

  1. Adjustment of corners of installation of wheels is broken.
  2. Tires are worn-out.
  3. Shock-absorbers / rack-mount assemblies are faulty.

Formation of agnails on one party of a protector of a forward wheel

  1. Adjustment of a convergence of wheels is broken.
  2. Tires are worn-out.
  3. Frequent movement on wavy surfaces. Fast movement on turns.

Ruptures of a cord. At first are visible only from within

Moving through sharp stones, blows of tires, etc. on high speed.

Unilateral wear of a working surface of a protector

  1. Check disorder adjustment.
  2. Malfunction of ABS takes place, - check a condition and reliability of fixing of terminal connection of weight of the returnable pump (in the hydromodulator).