since 1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Saab 9-5 Cars
+ Governing bodies and operation receptions
+ Settings and routine maintenance of the car
General information and preparatory operations
Check of kompressionny pressure
Engine check by means of the vacuum gage
+ Repair of 4-cylinder petrol engines
+ Repair of 6-cylinder petrol engines
+ Repair of 6-cylinder diesel engines
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
+ the Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
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General information and preparatory operations
Considered cars are completed with turbirovanny DOHC engines (with the camshafts located in the top part and with 4 valves on the cylinder) volume from 2.0 to 3.0 l. Into their number enter
4-cylinder petrol engines
4-cylinder engines are equipped with two balancing shaft. Balancing shaft are intended for prevention of vibrations from moving parts of the engine, and also for decrease in noise at operation of the engine.
The block of cylinders cast, with the pierced cylinders and oil channels, and also tunnels with the aluminum bearings of balancing shaft pressed in them.
Pistons are made of a light-alloy material and облужены by tin; their top parts are anodized. The top kompressionny piston ring has a flat form and is covered with a chrome or molybdenum layer. Maslosjyomnoye a ring consists of three sections. The piston is strengthened from within and incorporates to a rod by means of a finger. Axial moving of a finger is limited to cutting rings. Shod, the plug under a piston finger and loose leaves of shatunny bearings it is possible to replace rods. Top head of a rod the conic. The cranked shaft has 5 radical necks, central from which is used as well for a shaft centering in the axial direction. For greasing of bearings of a shaft in it oil channels are drilled. It is possible to replace loose leaves of radical bearings.
The light-alloy head of cylinders fastens bolts to the block of cylinders. Combustion chambers hemispherical. The cover of a chain of a drive of GRM and a back cover of the block of cylinders fasten to the block with use of means of Loctite 518.
Camshafts are given from a cranked shaft by a chain with a self-regulating natyazhitel. Camshafts affect valves directly, through hydraulic pushers. Pushers are regulated automatically according to change of length of the valve depending on temperature. Pushers work in an oil bath and are greased via the oil channel in a head of the block of cylinders. Valves are made of steel and have the chromeplated cores. Plates of final valves стеллированы. Natyazhitel of a chain of a drive of GRM is mounted in a head of the block of cylinders and is easily available.
System of greasing of 4-cylinder engines
In system of greasing of the engine pressure of oil is forced by the rotor pump located in a cover of a chain of a drive of GRM and given by cranked shaft. Oil arrives in the pump from the case pallet through a mesh maslozabornik and a tube. The Reduktsionny valve located in a cover of a chain of a drive of GRM is intended for restriction of pressure of oil by a way of return of excess of oil on soaking-up port of the pump. Oil from the pump via the channel in the block of cylinders goes to the oil filter. In the case of the holder of the oil filter the thermostat opening at temperature the 105th hail is established. and directing oil through a maslookhladitel. After filtering and cooling oil goes to the main canal of the block of cylinders where it is located Д/В pressure of the impellent oil, including corresponding To/l in a combination of devices at low pressure of oil. Bearings of a cranked shaft are greased via channels in the block and in a shaft while pistons and walls of cylinders are greased with a razbryzgivaniye. In the lower part of each cylinder the masloraspylitel intended for cooling of the piston by injection of a squirt of oil on the bottom party of the piston is established. The external bearing on the final party of a balancing shaft is greased through an opening in the radical bearing No. 1, and the internal bearing – through an opening in the radical bearing No. 1. Both bearings on the inlet party of a balancing shaft are greased via the main oil channel. The additional channel departs from the main channel to a head of the block of cylinders for greasing of camshafts and valves. Through an opening in one of screws of a head of the block of cylinders oil moves to drilled canals to all bearings of camshafts and pushers of valves. The pallet of a case is made of aluminum and fastens to the lower part of the block of cylinders. On the B235R engine from RKPP to the left of the pallet there is a strengthening adjacent to RKPP. The oil filter is located on the final party of a head of the block of cylinders, in the special holder from whom hoses to a maslookhladitel depart. In the oil filter the valve opening at pollution of the filter is established perepuskny.
Arrangement of support of 4-cylinder engines
For clearing of vibrations at operation of the engine on turns from single to 1800 rpm hydraulic support of the engine (a back and right lobby) are used. These support offer the following advantages:
The hydraulic support consists of two chambers filled with special liquid. Between chambers there is a membrane and the channel. Resistance of a support grows with growth of load of it.
Petrol 6-cylinder engine
3.0 the l the V-shaped 6-cylinder 24-klapanny petrol engine is established cross-section in an impellent compartment.
All camshafts are given by a gear belt, with automatic adjustment of a tension (by means of a natyazhitel with a roller). Inlet and final valves are given from camshafts through pushers. The mechanism of a drive of valves is similar described for 4-cylinder engines. In addition each head is equipped with two nozzles of a purge of the air, intended for decrease in noise of hydraulic pushers of valves after engine start. Cogwheels of camshafts of a back head of cylinders are interchangeable, no less than cogwheels of shaft of a forward head of cylinders.
System of greasing of the petrol V6 engine
The system of greasing is similar described for 4-cylinder engines. Oil for greasing of piston fingers is delivered to them via channels in cranked to a shaft and a rod.
Arrangement of support of the petrol V6 engine
For fastening of the engine three support, from which back and right – hydraulic type (see the description for 4-cylinder engines) are used.
Diesel 6-cylinder engine
3.0 the l the V-shaped 6-cylinder 24-klapanny diesel engine with direct injection of fuel is established cross-section in an impellent compartment.
The engine is completely made of aluminum. Polishing of the block and a head of cylinders are not admissible.
Fuel moves to nozzles on the general fuel highway. Nozzles spray certain amount of fuel and at some point, separately for each cylinder. The quantity and the moment of supply of fuel pay off the electronic control unit the engine (ECM). The throttle case, thus, is absent as superfluous. Is absent as well ignition system.
Directing and saddles of valves it is possible to replace. Pushers of valves – mechanical, the klapanny gap is regulated manually by selection of an adjusting washer of the necessary thickness. Nozzles are located on the center of cylinders. Valves are located at an angle the 8th hail. to each other that provides the most compact and effective chamber of combustion.
For consolidation of connection of the block with a head of cylinders metal laying is used.
Inlet camshafts are given by a gear belt from the fuel pump of a high pressure (TNVD). The belt is located behind the top plastic cover. Final camshafts are given from the inlet. Behind the bottom cover the oil pump given directly from a cranked shaft, and also the water pump and TNVD given from a cranked shaft through gear wheels are located. The tension of a belt of a drive of GRM is automatically supported by a natyazhitel of ekstsentrikovy type.
The cranked shaft leans on 4 radical bearings the third of which plays a role of the persistent bearing.
The vacuum pump is located on a back row of cylinders, from a flywheel. The drive of the vacuum pump is carried out from an inlet camshaft.
Scheme of system of greasing of the diesel engine
The system of greasing of the diesel engine is similar to system of greasing of petrol engines. Gear wheels of camshafts are greased via bearings of camshafts. Pistons and piston fingers are greased with means of masloraspylitel and a razbryzgivaniye from the case pallet.
The pallet of a case consists from bottom (steel) and top (aluminum) sections. In the top section are located a maslozabornik and the sensor of pressure of impellent oil. The oil filter is established in the case combining also a maslookhladitel.
The engine is established on four support, two of which – hydraulic type.
Arrangement of support of the diesel engine
Before carrying out any procedures of service of the engine make cleaning of an impellent compartment and external surfaces of the power unit with application of special solvent. Such processing will allow to avoid dirt hit in the engine.
In case of need, the forthcoming work defined by character, it is possible to remove a cowl for the purpose of ensuring freedom of access to components subject to service (see. Head Body). In order to avoid casual damage of a paint and varnish covering cover car wings with special covers or old blankets.
It is possible to consider an excessive consumption of impellent oil as a signal about need of carrying out check of a condition of piston rings, maslootrazhatelny caps and/or directing plugs of valves. Naturally, first of all, it is necessary to make sure that losses of oil are not connected with development of its external leaks. Check a compression in cylinders (see. The section Check of kompressionny pressure) to define the general condition of the engine.
Loss of the developed capacity, violation of stability of turns, excessive noise of the klapanny mechanism and the increased fuel consumption usually are rather characteristic signs of need of performance of major maintenance of the engine, in particular, when all these factors are shown at the same time. If performance of a full range of settings does not help with elimination of the problems, carrying out the general mechanical works on engine restoration will be the unique way out.
Major maintenance of the power unit means recovery of all of its working parameters to level, characteristic for the new engine. During major maintenance replacement of piston rings and restoration of mirrors of cylinders (a pro-point and/or a honingovaniye) is without fail made. Replacement of radical and shatunny bearings of a cranked shaft is usually carried out, the pro-point and restoration of his necks can be in case of need made. Service of the valves which condition at the moment of emergence of need for performance of major maintenance of the engine almost for certain leaves much to be desired is without fail carried out. In parallel with carrying out the general repair of the power unit also regenerative repair of a starter and the generator is usually made.
Major maintenance of the engine at all does not demand from the performer of high vocational training, however takes away a lot of time. It is necessary to plan refusal of using the car for the term of not less than two weeks, in particular in need of the request for the help in a mechanical workshop for the purpose of performance of separate recovery operations.
The most part of works can be executed with application of a usual set of the metalwork tool, however some of checks by determination of suitability of separate components to further use demand use of the precision measuring equipment. In doubtful situations address for the help to experts HUNDRED.
In summary it is possible to notice that all efforts on performance of regenerative repair of worn-out components will appear spent for nothing at the negligent relation to the requirement of observance of purity at unit assembly.